Services on NixOS systems are managed by systemd. In addition to the unit files provided by systemd itself, NixOS and our platform code generate unit files based on the configuration of a system. When activating a new system configuration, NixOS automatically restarts or reloads changed units.


Service users may invoke sudo systemctl to restart individual units, typically services.

Note that stopped services referenced by will be started by our management task which runs every 10 minutes or when activating system configuration changes manually.

See also Local Configuration for information about how to activate system configuration changes.

See the chapter Service Management in the NixOS manual for more information.


By default, we define a Sensu check called systemd_units_non_critical which emits a warning when there is at least one systemd unit in state failed. The check output also lists all affected units.

You can define separate checks for important systemd services. These checks become critical when the service unit is not in state active, by using the option See Application Service Example below.

Custom Units

You can define your own unit files using NixOS configuration modules in /etc/local/nixos or plain unit files in /etc/local/systemd. Using NixOS configuration is the most flexible and recommended approach. Plain unit files are deprecated and may not work as expected.

A few notes that you should pay attention to:

  • We do not enforce the user. You can start your services as root, but that may easily cause permission issues and poses severe security risks. Please confine your services to an appropriate user, typically your service user or let systemd handle it by using DynamicUser.

  • Your service should not daemonize / detach on its own. systemd works best when you just start and stay attached in the foreground.

  • NixOS automatically restarts units when meaningful changes to the unit are detected. Note that changes to comments or whitespace don’t trigger a restart. This behaviour changed compared to versions before 22.05 where every content change triggered a restart. If you have some value that should restart the unit when it changes, add it to the X-Restart-Triggers directive in the [Unit] section when using plain config or restartTriggers when using NixOS config. Since 22.05, it’s also possible to use reloadTriggers. See the examples below in the corresponding configuration sections.

See the systemd.service and related pages for further information about systemD units, and the NixOS Manual/Unit handling section for details about the start/stop/restart/reload behaviour when units change.

NixOS Unit Configuration

By writing a custom NixOS module, you can define all kinds of systemd units. See the NixOS options for service units for all available settings.

Minimal Service Example

Place the following NixOS module in /etc/local/nixos/systemd-service-minimal-example.nix (file name doesn’t matter, just needs the .nix extension):

{ = {
    description = "A minimal example for a custom systemd service";
    wantedBy = [ "" ];
    serviceConfig = {
      ExecStart = "/srv/s-myservice/bin/runme";
      User = "s-myservice";
      Group = "service";

This starts the service after boot and when fc-manage is run. It runs as user s-myservice and doesn’t restart if the executable fails.

Application Service Example

Place the following NixOS module in /etc/local/nixos/systemd-service-myapp.nix:

{ config, pkgs, ... }:
  # Defines a Sensu check called `systemd_unit-myapp` which becomes critical when
  # the service stops running. = { "myapp.service" = {}; }; = {
    after = [ "" "postgresql.service" ];
    wantedBy = [ "" ];
    # When the unit changes, just do a restart with the new unit settings instead
    # of a stop/start cycle which takes longer.
    # This is safe if there's no ExecStop command.
    stopIfChanged = false;
    # Run a script before starting the actual application.
    preStart = ''
      echo "Setting up the config file...":
      echo HOST=${config.networking.hostName} > $RUNTIME_DIRECTORY/config
    path = with pkgs; [
      bash # adds all binaries from the bash package to PATH
      "/run/wrappers" # if you need something from /run/wrappers/bin, sudo, for example
    # Trigger a unit reload when the listed value changes.
    reloadTriggers = [
    # Trigger a unit restart when one of the listed values changes.
    restartTriggers = [
    serviceConfig = {
      Description = "Run application myapp";
      # Use /run/myapp as temporary app runtime directory.
      # Can be referenced by the environment variable $RUNTIME_DIRECTORY
      RuntimeDirectory = "myapp";
      # Use /var/lib/myapp as persistent app state directory.
      # Can be referenced by the environment variable $STATE_DIRECTORY
      StateDirectory = "myapp";
      DynamicUser = true;
      # Service type simple is used by default, so the start command should not daemonize!
      ExecStart = "/srv/myapp/bin/run";
      # Set environment variables for the application.
      Environment = [
      # Automatically restart service when it exits.
      Restart = "always";
      # Wait a second before restarting.
      RestartSec = "1s";

      # Security hardening
      CapabilityBoundingSet = "";
      DevicePolicy = "closed";
      LockPersonality = true;
      MemoryDenyWriteExecute = true;
      NoNewPrivileges = true;
      PrivateDevices = true;
      PrivateUsers = true;
      ProtectClock = true;
      ProtectControlGroups = true;
      ProtectHome = true;
      ProtectHostname = true;
      ProtectKernelLogs = true;
      ProtectKernelModules = true;
      ProtectKernelTunables = true;
      ProtectProc = "invisible";
      ProtectSystem = "strict";
      PrivateTmp = true;
      RestrictAddressFamilies = [ "AF_INET" "AF_INET6" ];
      RestrictNamespaces = true;
      RestrictRealtime = true;
      RestrictSUIDSGID = true;
      SystemCallArchitectures = "native";
      # Allow typical system calls for a service.
      SystemCallFilter = [
    unitConfig = {
      Documentation = [

systemd supports many options to harden services to limit the attack surface. The example includes quite restrictive settings that may not work for your service. Internet connectivity is still possible but many potentially dangerous ways to interact with the system are prohibited.

You can check the security settings with systemd-analyze security myapp which yields a score of 1.3 for the given config (1 is the best, 10 the worst).

Timer Example

Place the following NixOS module in /etc/local/nixos/systemd-mytask.nix:

{ config, pkgs, ... }:
  systemd.timers.mytask = {
    wantedBy = [ "" ];
    timerConfig = {
      OnCalendar = "daily";
      Persistent = true;
  }; = {
    path = with pkgs; [
      bash # adds all executables from the bash package to PATH
      "/run/wrappers" # if you need something from /run/wrappers/bin, sudo, for example
    serviceConfig = {
      Description = "Run daily maintenance script.";
      Type = "oneshot";
      User = "test";
      ExecStart = "/srv/test/";
      # Set environment variables for the script.
      Environment = [

Plain Unit Configuration

We still support plain unit config in in /etc/local/systemd/<unit-name>.service but it’s deprecated. Use Nix config instead, as shown above.

We bind your service unit to the by default so they will be automatically started upon boot and stopped properly when the machine shuts down.


Don’t use this for services that are meant to be started by a timer! Oneshot services defined this way are triggered on by our management task which means that they will run every 10 minutes!

A simple unit file to start a service may look like this:

Description=My Application Service




If you want to trigger a restart when a certain value changes which would normally not be a part of the unit config, for example an externally computed hash value, add the value using the X-Restart-Triggers directive. The name of the directive is only a convention, you can use any directive to trigger a restart. Using a templated unit, for example in a batou deployment could look like this:

Description=My Restarting Application Service
X-Restart-Triggers={{ component.hash }}